To begin, Instructional design refers to the process of instructional program development from start to finish. Many models exist for use by different levels of instructional designers and for different instructional purposes; however, the process can be summarized into five general phases, commonly known as ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Develop, Implementation, Evaluation). These phases sometimes overlap and can be interrelated; however, they provide a dynamic, flexible guideline for developing effective instruction.

1. The Analyze phase is the foundation for all other phases of instructional design. You define the problem, identify the source of the problem and determine possible solutions. May include specific research techniques such as needs analysis, job analysis and task analysis. The outputs of this phase often include the instructional goals, and a list of tasks to be instructed. These outputs will be the inputs for the Design phase.

2. The Design phase involves using the outputs from the Analyze phase to plan a strategy for developing the instruction. You outline how to reach the instructional goals determined during the Analyze phase and expand the instructional foundation. Elements include writing a target population description, conducting a learning analysis, writing objectives and test items, selecting a delivery system, and sequencing the instruction. The outputs of the Design phase are the inputs for the Develop phase.

3. The Develop phase builds on both the Analyze and Design phases. The purpose of this phase of the ADDIE instructional design model is to generate the lesson plans and lesson materials. You develop the instruction, all media that will be used in the instruction, and any supporting documentation.

4. The Implementation phase refers to the actual delivery of the instruction, whether it’s classroom-based, lab-based, or computer-based. The purpose of this phase is the effective and efficient delivery of instruction. This phase must promote the students’ understanding of material, support the students’ mastery of objectives, and ensure the students’ transfer of knowledge from the instructional setting to the job.

5. The Evaluate phase measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the instruction. Should actually occur throughout the entire instructional design process – within phases, between phases, and after implementation. Formative Evaluation is ongoing during and between phases. The purpose is to improve the instruction before the final version is implemented. Summative Evaluation occurs after the final version of instruction is implemented. This type of evaluation assesses the overall effectiveness of the instruction. Data from the Summative Evaluation is often used to make a decision about the instruction (such as whether to purchase an instructional package or continue/discontinue instruction).

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