Literary language can’t be used for natural communication among people during activities like gossiping, purchasing grocery, etc. Because a writer sometimes describes peculiar experiences of life, which can not be expressed in ordinary language and resorts to disfiguring language to express thought.
In language communication is expressed through two mediums– written and spoken. And both are distinct from each other in many respects. However, both despite being different are used as complement in novel and drama in writing dialogues.
In writing speech is expressed in two ways, i.e., direct and indirect speech. In novel and short stories a third variety ‘free indirect discourse’ (FID) is used. The FID combines elements form both the direct speech and the indirect speech, and functions to present a ‘stream of consciousness’ etc.
The elaboration usually given to the word in the language by extending its meaning is known as metaphor. ‘Hari is like a Dog’, in the sentence meaning of the word dog is extended to represent an evil representation of Hari. Dog is used here, metaphorically.
An extension in meaning can be employed by changing a concrete object to an abstract idea like for presenting vividness. Second extension is from living to non-living and vice-versa using personification. Third extension is from Animal to human and vice-versa. Fourth type of extension of meaning is with the use of sensory perception like smell, touch, taste, sound or sight. And final is extension of meaning by magnification.