* The Learner
Elements of Instruction
* For whom is the instruction being developed?
* What should the learner be able to do after completing the instruction?
* How are these objectives best acquired? What teaching/learning methods, activities, and resources should you use?
* How will you know if the objectives have been mastered? Or that learning has happened?
* Before designing instruction, evaluate the following essential elements
* The academic background of the learner, previous academic experience or exposure to the topic, and his/her school or grade level.
* Personal or social characteristics: Age, attitude, work experience, how the content of the instruction relates to his/her life.
* Characteristics of the non-conventional learner: Culturally diverse learners, primary language, learners with disabilities.
* Learning styles, the existing conditions necessary for an individual to learn.
* Motivation of the learner: the student seeking grades, credit, self-improvement, salary or status advancement. Motivation is one of the most important factors to success.
Objectives of the Instruction
Stated objectives are necessary to:
* Facilitate effective learning by designing appropriate instruction
* Provide a framework for evaluating learning
* Prepare and guide the learner
* Objectives can address the- Cognitive domain, Psychomotor domain, Affective domain
* The evaluation of the instruction
Methods of Instruction
* Defining the content needed to address the instructional problem or need is important to instructional design principles.
* Sequence the content to help the learner achieve the objectives.
* Deliver the instruction in one of three patterns: Whole group presentations, Small group interactions, Individualized learning.
Steps in the Instructional Design Process
1. Assess the situation: Needs assessment, Normative needs (test scores, grades, prerequisites), Comparative needs (learning styles) and – Expressed needs, mostly from feedback of students and other peers). Performance Assessment (Feedback from previous students regarding previous instruction. Answers the question: Are the goals of teaching being met?) Choose a design model to follow or design your own using established instructional principles.
2. State the Goal: Think about why you are having students write papers, discuss certain topics; reason why you are assigning certain topics and tasks. Articulate this in some way to your students).
3. Select Appropriate Delivery Medium: Is multimedia appropriate. Think carefully about why you are using a type of multimedia, and how using that media will help enhance your efforts to meet your learning objectives.
4. Implementation: How much help/support do I need? What type of implementation: Interface design Programming Scanning and Digitization
5. Evaluation and Revision: Evaluation of students, course, lesson, unit or module.